Dienstag, 25.06.2019 06:23 Uhr

The National Archeological Museum, Naples

Verantwortlicher Autor: Carlo Marino Rome/Naples, 17.08.2018, 09:07 Uhr
Presse-Ressort von: Dr. Carlo Marino Bericht 5957x gelesen

Rome/Naples [ENA] The beauty of Naples is famous all over the world. The city was first settled by Greeks in the second millennium B.C. and it is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban areas in the world. In the ninth century B.C. a colony known as Parthenope was founded on the Island of Megaride, later known as Neápolis in the sixth century BC. The city was an important part of Magna Graecia, played a major role in the

merging of Greek and Roman society and under the Romans its role was that of a significant cultural centre. A must-see in Naples is the National Archeological Museum. It is one of the earliest and important museums in the world for the wealth and exceptionality of its heritage and for the influence it offered the European cultural investigation. The museum hosts extensive collections of Greek and Roman antiquities. The origin and the creation of its collections are associated with Charles III of Bourbon, on the throne of the Kingdom of Naples since 1734, and his cultural policy.

The king encouraged the exploration of the Vesuvian towns buried by the eruption of 79 AD (started in 1738 in Herculaneum, in 1748 in Pompeii) and superintended the carrying out of a “Museo Farnesiano” in Naples, transferring from the palaces of Rome and Parma part of the rich collection inherited from his mother Elizabeth Farnese. The Farnese Collection, which includes a collection of engraved gems (including the Farnese Cup, a Ptolemaic bowl made of sardonyx agate and it is founded upon gems collected by Cosimo de' Medici and Lorenzo il Magnifico in the 15th century) and the Farnese Marbles.

His son Ferdinand IV supported the integration of all collections in the present-day building, built at the end of the 16th century as a riding school and from 1616 untill 1777 Building of the University of Naples. From 1777 a long series of renovation works and extension plans entrusted to the architects F. Fuga and P. Schiantarelli were completed. In the decade of the French domination (1806-1815) further works were carried out and with the return of the Bourbons to Naples in 1816 the building was denominated “Real Museo Borbonico”. Conceived as a Universal Museum, it housed institutes and laboratories (Real Biblioteca, Accademia del Disegno, Officina dei Papiri and so on), which afterwards were moved to other locations in 1957.

The Museum collection continued to get bigger over the following years through the acquisition of findings coming from the excavations in the sites of Campania and Southern Italy and from private collections. The transfer of the Picture-Gallery to Capodimonte in 1957 determines its present characterization of Archeological Museum. Among the notable works found in the museum are the Herculaneum papyri, carbonized by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, found after 1752 in Villa of the Papyri.

Achilles on Skyros. An episode in the myth of Achilles. Fresco from Pompeii I cent. A.D.

At the moment archeological exhibitions deal with particular historical aspects of the heritage exhibited and correlate with Neapolitan culture, such as “Mito e Natura” and “La reale stamperia borbonica” in 2016, “Pompei e la Grecia” in 2017, “Pompei e gli Etruschi” in 2018. The declared objective is to increase the number of visitors from 360.000 in the year 2015 to 500.000 within the year 2019 and the signals are already more than positive since in the first six months of the new management the visitors have increased by 15%.

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